At the passing on 29 November 1947 of “United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 (II), Future Government of Palestine,” which sketched the outlines of the future State of Israel, the UN was itself in its infancy and seeking a permanent home. So it was that the Partition of Palestine can be traced to the Sperry Gyroscope Plant on Long Island at 1111 Marcus Avenue, in Lake Success, New York.
It seems fitting that Resolution 181’s three-axis balancing of the “Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special International Regime for the City of Jerusalem” has its roots in a former defense installation devoted to manufacturing instruments to serve exactly that purpose.
He ended a 2500-year monarchy in his country, deposing Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in the process. He coined the term “Great Satan” in response to American intervention in Iran. Under his regime Iranians stormed the American Embassy, taking (and ultimately releasing) 52 hostages in 1979-1981. He was Time magazine’s “Person of the Year” in 1979. He issued the fatwa calling for the death of Salman Rushdie, and he invited Soviet President Gorbachev to consider Islam as an alternative to communism. Khomeini was clearly a man of strong opinions who was not afraid of the spotlight.
In the selections below from the Translations on Near East and North Africa series in Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) Reports, Khomeini appears in a more distilled form, no less zealous but further from the barricades. His firebrand rhetoric is still here, but his early writings especially show him to be a serious legal and religious scholar, devoted to his people and his faith.
Islamic Government, by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeyni
No. 1897. (Publication data not given. Arabic, [1969-1970]) 78 pages
The scope of Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) Reports, 1957-1995, is much broader than politics and national security; social issues are also well represented. In the four reports excerpted below we proceed from general to particular. The first, which includes the cartoons here, is a diverse collection of articles from Arabic-language sources; the second a travel diary of a woman visiting oases in Egypt. The third and fourth items both concern the conflict of Muslim traditions in the former Soviet Union—the latter report specifically with regard to the nomadic culture of Kazakhstan. Together they offer valuable insights into the role of women in Muslim countries, both in urban and rural settings.
The first report, Near East/North Africa Report, No. 2620, Status of women in Persian Gulf countries (JPRS-81769, 09/15/1982. 90 pages) touches upon such contemporary topics as age discrimination, suffrage, driving, marriage and divorce, employment, education, dress, and East/West cultural differences.
Readex provides digital access to the principal historical record of open-source intelligence gathered by the United States from World War II through the end of the Cold War. Spanning Africa, Asia and the Pacific, China, Eastern and Western Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and the Soviet Union, this intelligence, obtained from publicly available media, includes reports from radio and television broadcasts, journals and newspapers, monographs, reports and other sources. Together, these uniquely valuable reports—available in Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) Daily Reports, 1941-1996 and the Joint Publications Research Service (JPRS) Reports, 1957-1995—provide millions of pages of English-language information.
“It was downright indecent. I saw women go out after the creatures had begun what they call their dance. I did not stay it through. I just couldn’t.”1
(A woman’s indignant account of her visit to the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893)
Danse du ventre, oriental dance, the hoochie coochie, coochie coochie, muscle dance, or better known to us as belly dance, was almost unknown in the United States until 1893 when brightly colored dancers dressed in exotic garb from the Middle East appeared at the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Their dancing both fascinated and scandalized Victorians. The Exposition, also known as the Chicago World’s Fair, commemorated the 400-year anniversary of Christopher Columbus’s discovery of the New World. It was the first world’s fair with an area of amusements set aside from exhibitions. This area was known as the Midway Plaisance. One of the most popular attractions on the Midway was “A Street in Cairo,” where the dancers performed. Over 27 million people attended the Exposition during its six-month run.2 "The Streets of Cairo” was one of its more memorable attractions for many visitors, as well as one of its most controversial. Victorian visitors often viewed the dancers, now identified from the published descriptions of their costumes as gypsy ghawazi from Egypt3, with a mixture of fascination, amusement and moralistic revulsion:
Since 1941 the U.S. Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) has been recording, transcribing and translating intercepted radio broadcasts from foreign governments, official news services, and clandestine broadcasts from occupied territories. Now a comprehensive digital edition of this unique archive is available for students and scholars of world history and political science.
The historical precedents to topics in today's headlines from Libya, Egypt and the Middle East
FBIS Daily Report Annexes, 1974-1996is an essential complement to FBIS Daily Reports—the fully searchable broadcast and news resource featuring first-hand reporting from around the globe.
This new international archive offers an additional 7,500 items, each designated "For Official Use Only" and previously unavailable outside the intelligence community and other Federal agencies. The Annexes were not an item in the Federal Depository Library Program, which distributed the Daily Report in microfiche from 1978 to 1996. No institution other than the Central Intelligence Agency holds all of the Annexes.