Created in partnership with the Center for Research Libraries, Latin American Newspapers, Series 2, represents a major supplement to the inaugural collection of newspapers from this region. Dramatically expanding the coverage available to researchers, Series 2 features issues from nearly 250 newspapers published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish from 20 Latin American countries, including some locations not represented previously. In addition, Series 2 provides a significant number of newspapers published in Mexico during the Mexican War (1846-1848), including titles published in English in American-occupied cities. Key titles include:
Crítica (Buenos Aires, Argentina) 1914-1922
Crítica (1913-1962), edited by the Uruguayan journalist and entrepreneur Natalio Botana (Natalio Félix Botana Miralles), was the most widely circulated newspaper in Latin America in the 1920s. Its daily circulation spiked from 75,000 (1922) to 900,000 (1926) copies before closing in 1931 in the wake of a military coup it had promoted. It supported Republican Spain during the Spanish Civil War and later criticized the military leader and Argentine president, Juan Domingo Perón. Its controversial political content was matched with articles on trendy topics contributed by a variety of writers in a popular language style. Botana died in 1941 and the ownership passed the Botana family who followed its publishing traditions until closing the business in 1962.
Nación (Buenos Aires, Argentina) 1870-1893
La Nación (1870- ) was founded on January 4, 1870 by the former president Bartolomé Mitre. The title succeeded the government organ La Nación Argentina, published from 1862 to 1869 during Mitre's presidency. The new publication, under the slogan "La Nación será una tribuna de doctrina," espoused an independent (conservative) perspective on affairs. It is generally considered one of the most prestigious newspapers in Argentina and Latin America, with continuous publication for nearly 140 years. Note: This run complements the coverage from 1906 to 1922 in the previous series.
Colonial Guardian (Belize City, Belize) 1882-1913
The Colonial Guardian (1882-1913) was an influential commercial newspaper, representing the interests of the elite during a time when the ethnic diversity of the population grew in tandem with the fruit trade. It was published by Dr. Frederick Gahne, graduate of University of Glasgow and a popular former Governor of the Bay Islands.
Diario (La Paz, Bolivia) 1904-1914
One of the oldest newspapers in Bolivia, El Diario (1904- ) was founded in 1904 by José Carrasco Torrico, a member of the prominent and influential Carrasco family. Historically, El Diario was closely identified with the Liberal Party that ruled Bolivia for most of the first quarter of the 20th century. It published primarily local news articles and essays written from a conservative position and by the elite of La Paz, such as diplomat Federico Diez de Medina, naturalist Arturo Posnansky, intellectual Lucas James, and economist Felipe Segundo.
Época (La Paz, Bolivia) 1845-1867
La Época (1845-1868) was the first daily newspaper published in Bolivia after its war of independence. Notable editors included the Argentine writer Bartolomé Mitre and the journalist diplomat Félix Reyes Ortíz. Mitre, who also wrote notes in the newspapers El Iniciador and El Nacional (1838-1839) and the Chilean publications El Comercio de Valparaíso (1847) and El Mercurio (1848), moved to Bolivia in 1847 where he founded the anti-Rosas newspaper La Época. He wrote constantly against the Rosas regime and the dictatorship of Juan Manuel de Rosas. Félix Reyes Ortíz was an accomplished lawyer, writer, politician, journalist and poet.
Heraldo (Cochabamba, Bolivia) 1881-1883
El Heraldo (1877-?) of Cochabamba was founded by Don Juan Francisco Valarde, one of the best-known journalists of Bolivia. A native of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, he occupied several important posts in service of his country at home and abroad.
Folha do Amazonas (Manaus, Brazil) 1910-1915
Folha do Amazonas (1910-?) was an organ of the Partido Republicano Conservador, which represented the ideals of the Brazilian agrarian elite. The paper served as one of the principal dailies of Amazonas, alongside Folha do Norte (Pará) and Jornal do Commercio (Manaus).
Jornal do Commercio (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) 1862-1888; 1902-1922
Founded by Pierre Plancher as an emulation of the French Journal du Commerce, Jornal do Commercio (1827- ) began publication on October 1, 1827. The first issues were purposefully non-political, dealing with commercial matters only. However, political strain in the years following Brazilian independence from Portugal and readership demand soon prompted an expansion into political news and opinion. The paper was an outspoken critic of Emperor Pedro I, culminating in his abdication in 1831. Continuing to evolve, the Jornal came to be regarded one of the great political and cultural publications of its time, featuring news and literature from Brazil’s best-known authors. Today, the Jornal is the oldest uninterrupted daily newspaper still published in Brazil. Note: This run complements the coverage from 1889-1901 in the previous series.
Provincia do Pará (Belém, Brazil) 1908-1911
A Província do Pará (1876-?) was founded on March 25, 1876 by Antonio Lemos (chief editor) with Joaquim José de Assis (editor) and Francisco de Souza Cerqueira (printer). Published in Belém do Pará, the daily newspaper was aligned with the Partido Liberal and used as a propaganda tool by Lemos, who became mayor of Belém in 1897. During Brazil’s fight against slavery, the paper published extensive reports containing names of slaves freed by their masters. A Província do Pará was one of the first papers in the region to adopt modern publishing techniques, and moved towards providing more general news rather than local “intrigues.” Surviving nearly 125 years (with interruptions), the paper was one of the oldest dailies published in the state of Amazonas until its closing in 2001.
The Rio News (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) 1877-1893
The Rio News (1874-?) was an English-language, business oriented newspaper owned and edited by A.J. Lamoureaux from 1879 to 1901. It contained a review of Brazilian news, announced arrivals and departures of foreign vessels, and published commercial and trade reports and activity in the commodity markets. Lamoureaux (later an Agriculture Reference Librarian at Cornell University, d. 1928) used his position as editor to further the cause of emancipation of slaves in South America.
Estrella (Valparaíso, Chile) 1921-1922
La Estrella de Valparaíso (1921-?) was founded on January 1, 1921 as an evening paper. It eventually became the second most important newspaper in the Valparaíso region, publishing general news with a focus on the culture and community service.
Mercurio de Valparaíso (Valparaíso, Chile) 1827-1861; 1911-1917
El Mercurio de Valparaíso (1827- ) is the oldest newspaper continuously published in Chile and the oldest Spanish-language newspaper in the world. El Mercurio was edited by Juan Bautista Alberdi (1810-1884), one of the most influential figures in Argentine history. Alberdi went on to write a significant portion of the Argentine constitution. After his exile from Argentina for being a political troublemaker (1839 to 1843), he settled in Valparaiso, Chile, where he edited El Mercurio and wrote regular articles denouncing the political situation in Argentina.
South Pacific Mail (Valparaíso, Chile) 1918-1922
The South Pacific Mail (1909-?), a popular English-language newspaper in Chile, published its first issue was in Valparaíso on November 6, 1909. It represented the interests of the British community in Chile and Bolivia and circulated throughout the West coast of South America. The main editorial writer in the 1920s was Oswald Hardy Evans. The newspaper’s reporting steered clear of political involvement. Instead it concentrated on business news and advertising. It was revived in Santiago in 1950, finally ceasing publication in December 1969.
Conservador (Bogotá, Colombia) 1883-1884
El Conservador (1881-1884) was launched as an organ of the Partido Conservador Colombiano, one of the two dominant parties in Colombia. It was founded and edited by Sergio Arboleda, one of the party’s principal ideologists.
Correo Nacional (Bogotá, Colombia) 1890-1891
In Colombia during the 1890s newspapers were largely organs of public opinion and frequently backed by political parties. El Correo Nacional (1890-?) published articles contributed by Colombia’s former president Carlos Holguin, a leading figure of conservatism and one of the main architects of La Regeneración—the controversial political ideology that supported a centralist government, restricted freedoms and alliance with the Catholic Church. In 1893, El Correo Nacional published Hoguin’s treatise, Cartas políticas, which further fueled antagonism within liberal factions.
Nuevo Tiempo (Bogotá, Colombia) 1917-1922
El Nuevo Tiempo (1902-?) was founded by Ismael Enrique Arenas. From its beginnings as a four-page advertising publication it became the most influential newspaper in the country, with reliable national and international reporting. For many years it supported the conservative political parties and had a reputation for getting presidents elected.
Opinión (Bogotá, Colombia) 1900-1902
La Opinión (1900-?) was published to inform the public of official decrees and government activities. It also featured reporting on conditions relative to the Thousand Days' War (1899–1902). Between 1900 and 1901, La Opinión was edited by Gerardo Arrubla who expressed his conservative ideology in his journalistic activities. He later became a member of Congress, mayor of Bogotá (1917–1918), director of the Library and National Museum, and Director of Public Instruction.
Diario de la Marina (Havana, Cuba) 1844-1882; 1910-1922
Don Nicolás Rivero founded El Diario de la Marina (1844-1960) in 1844, succeeding his newspaper El Noticioso y Lucero de la Habana (1832). It is said to be the longest-running newspaper in Cuba and considered an essential source for study of pre-revolution Cuba. El Diario, subtitled the "Official Newspaper of the Port of Habana," primarily carried shipping information and related news. In its early years the paper had a pro-Spanish editorial position. Following Cuba’s independence from Spain, it commented on a succession of regimes, U.S. occupation and influence, and the rise of the sugar industry. Note: This run complements the coverage from 1899-1909 in the previous series.
Mundo (Havana, Cuba) 1911-1922
El Mundo (1901-1969) was one of four leading newspapers in early 20th century Havana. Its business manager, Antonio Herrera, aimed to provide an independent political stance but its editor, José Manuel Govín, was a staunch liberal. In fact, some readers considered the paper an organ of Liberal Party. It kept its street prices low and, coupled with its political viewpoint, became a favorite publication of the laboring class.
Listín Diario (Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic) 1909-1922
Following the assassination in 1899 of President Ulises Heureaux, the Dominican Republic endured short-lived governments, bankruptcy and U.S. intervention. In this climate of equally short-lived newspapers, Listín Diario (1900s-?), published by the liberal-leaning Pelletano family, became the main daily in Santo Domingo.
Diario del Salvador (San Salvador, El Salvador) 1907-1916
Diario del Salvador (1895-1943) was founded by Román Mayorga Rivas, a Nicaraguan poet and journalist considered the founder of modern journalism in El Salvador. In 1895 he established Diario del Salvador (1895-1932), one of the most important and modern newspapers in Central America at the time. In addition, Rivas was a published author in a literary environment that included such recognized writers such as Francisco Gavidia, David J. Guzmán, Porfirio Barba Jacob (known as Ricardo Arenales), and Jose María Peralta Lagos.
Bien Público (Quetzaltenango, Guatemala) 1894-1896
El Bien Público (1890s-?) was considered one of the more significant newspapers in Guatemala in the late 19th century. It was published as a semi-weekly in the city of Quezaltenango, Guatemala’s second largest city, and was edited for a time by Juan Ramón Molina, considered by many to be Honduras’ national poet and one of the best Latin American writers in the early 20th century.
Moniteur Haitien (Port-au-Prince, Haiti) 1845-1849; 1857-1861; 1865-1922
Le Moniteur (1845- ), the official publication of the Haitian government, was used by the Haitian state to announce new laws concerning education, politics, religion, and commerce. It is still in operation.
Cronista (Tegucigalpa, Honduras) 1917-1918
Chief among the journalists leading the organization of the National Democratic Party was Paulino Valadares, who served in the national legislature in 1908 and as private secretary to the Liberal Party’s president Miguel Davila. Valdares founded La Prensa in Tegucigalpa and later served as editor of El Cronista (1912- ) in the same city. He used his press positions to promote the idea of a new political party that would resolve the persistent political chaos in Honduras. Note: See also same note under La Prensa.
Estado (Tegucigalpa, Honduras) 1904-1907
During the first decades of the 20th century, Honduran newspapers were closed and their editors exiled at the whim of the government. El Estado (1904-1907) existed at an important point in Honduran press history
Excelsior (Tegucigalpa, Honduras) 1921-1923
This run of Excelsior (1921-?) was published during the decades of the “Banana wars” (1898-1934). As Honduras entered the 20th century, three United States’ fruit companies—United Fruit, the Vaccaro brothers (who would later be known as Standard Fruit), and Cuyamel Fruit—owned nearly three-quarters of all Honduran banana plantations, the products of which were intended for U.S. markets. During these years many of the smaller banana farms were either bought out or forced out of business. In 1913, with banana exports accounting for more than 60% of Honduras’ total exports, the nation earned the moniker “banana republic.” So embedded was the banana industry that for over a century the movers and shakers of the banana trade shaped the politics of Honduras.
Nuevo Tiempo (Tegucigalpa, Honduras) 1911-1919
El Nuevo Tiempo (1911-1919) was a short-lived daily published in Honduras’s capital and largest city, Tegucigalpa, by Froylán Turcios (1874-1943) who founded and directed several newspaper ventures in Guatemala and Honduras. Turcios was one of the most important Honduran intellectuals and politicians of his time and was the Honduras delegate to the League of Nations. He was against American involvement in Honduras and its banana trade, both of which accelerated after completion of the Panama Canal in 1914.
Prensa (Tegucigalpa, Honduras) 1907-1909
Chief among the journalists leading the organization of the National Democratic Party was Paulino Valadares, who served in the national legislature in 1908 and as private secretary to the Liberal Party’s president Miguel Davila. Valdares founded La Prensa in Tegucigalpa and later served as editor of El Cronista (1912- ) in the same city. He used his press positions to promote the idea of a new political party that would resolve the persistent political chaos in Honduras. Note: See also same note under El Cronista.
Republicano (Tegucigalpa, Honduras) 1903-1904
When the two daily papers in Tegucigalpa, El Diario and El Dia, were discontinued by government order, El Republicano (1903-1904) was founded to replace them. It was semiofficial and issued triweekly.
Courrier Français (Mexico City, Mexico) 1844-1847
Le Courrier Français (1840s-1847) was one of a few French-language publications (also, Trait d'Union and L'Echo du Mexique) produced in Mexico for its French community in the mid-19th century. After gaining independence in 1821, Mexico opened its doors to immigration. In 1842 La Société de Prévoyance was founded to assist French immigrants in need.
Demócrata (Mexico City, Mexico) 1916-1919
El Demócrata (1914-1926), under the direction of Rafael Martínez, is not to be confused with an earlier opposition newspaper by the same name edited by José Ferrél during the Díaz regime. This paper, along with several others, was appropriated by Carranza’s forces when he took Mexico City in 1914. It had a pro-German and anti-American slant during much of World War I.
Diario del Hogar (Mexico City, Mexico) 1886-1917
El Diario del Hogar (1881-1900s), founded by San Luis Filomeno Mata, began as a publication about everyday issues and social events. However, from 1888 onward, the newspaper followed a liberal reformist trend and more openly criticized the regime of Porfirio Díaz. It denounced the arbitrariness of the regime and the complacent role of the official press. Persecuted by the Díaz dictatorship, Mata was frequently arrested and forced several times to close his press.
Hesperia (Mexico City, Mexico) 1840-1846
La Hesperia (1840-?) was a business newspaper primarily devoted to the mercantile trade. It included local auction results, customs duty rates, and lists of tax-exempt goods. It also published official economic policy and public finance reports.
Opinión (Veracruz-Llave, Mexico) 1911-1915
La Opinión (1897-?) commenced publication with the conviction that the press played a useful and important function in modern society. Published in two daily editions, La Opinión was destined to become not only one of the most independent and liberal newspapers in Mexico, but also one of the most long-lived.
El Universal (Mexico City, Mexico) 1916-1922
El Universal (1916- ) is a major Mexican newspaper, still publishing with one of the country’s largest circulations. It was founded by Félix Palavicini and Emilio Rabasa in the wake of the Mexican Revolution. Defending the new constitution’s principles and advocating for a strong central government, El Universal hoped to be a model for Mexico’s emerging liberal free press.
American Flag (Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico) 1846-1848
The American Flag (1846-1860s) was established in June 1846, following the Republic of Texas’s transition to a U.S. state a few months earlier. The American Flag continued to be published during the ensuing Mexican-American War of 1846-1848, offering stories of U.S. troops in Mexico, especially in the border town of U.S.-occupied Matamoros, and the controversial border disputes of the Mexican secession. The paper moved to Brownsville, Texas, prior to November 1, 1848.
Daily American Star (Mexico City, Mexico) 1847-1848
The Daily American Star (1847-?) was published in Mexico City for the American Army during the U.S. occupation of the Mexican capital at the end of the Mexican-American War. It was printed in both English and Spanish, with the Spanish section titled Estrella Americana. Other editions were published by John H. Peebles and Jas. R. Banard in Jalapa and Puebla, Mexico.
Guardia Nacional de Chiapas (Chiapas, Mexico) 1848-1851
El Guardia Nacional de Chiapas (1848-?) was a pro-Federalist tabloid founded after Nicolás Fernando Maldonado became state governor in 1846. It was the official newspaper in Chiapas in 1848. Following the Mexican War of Independence, a number of different governments ruled the country. By the mid-19th century the political divisions basically settled into two camps, the Conservatives and the Federalists or Liberals. Liberals favored the establishment of federalist republic based on ideas coming out of the European Enlightenment movement.
Indicador (Veracruz-Llave, Mexico) 1846-1846
El Indicador (1846-?) is the successor to El Arcoíris de Veracruz. According to its subtitle it provided political, literary, economic, and commercial news of Veracruz. At three pesos, its retail price was the same as its predecessor and its contents were not significantly different. It bears the stamp of Antonio Valdés printing.
Lima de Vulcano (Mexico City, Mexico) 1834-1839
La Lima de Vulcano (1833-1839) was an opposition newspaper that fought for freedom of the press. Its editorial stance mellowed as politicians more in tune with its viewpoint came into power. At one point, the newspaper even defended the government’s decision to close another newspaper and send a colleague into exile.
Mosquito Mexicano (Mexico City, Mexico) 1834-1845
The publication of El Mosquito Mexicano (1834-?) commenced with the failure of the post-independence federalist regime in Mexico and the rise in power of Antonio López de Santa Anna, a former federalist turned centralist and eventual dictator. El Mosquito’s anti-federalist editorial policy supported centralist republican government with the balance of power held by the property owning classes. In addition to discussing Mexico’s internal politics of the day, it also provided news on political events in the outside world, especially France, Britain, and the United States.
Republicano (Mexico City, Mexico) 1846-1847
El Republicano (1846-?), one of Mexico’s many short-lived newspapers, represented moderate liberalism and the federalist model. It was edited by Francisco Zarco, one of the most notable journalists of 19th-century Mexico. For two months (January and February 1846) he published Memorial Histórico, which was followed by El Republicano (March 1846-July 1847).
El Pueblo : Organo del Partido Liberal (Asunción, Paraguay) 1894-1895
El Pueblo first appeared in 1894 as the organ of Paraguay’s liberal faction. Its director was Liberato M. Rojas, who later became the provisional President of Paraguay (July 6, 1911 to February 28, 1912). His partners in El Pueblo were Amancio Insaurralde, Adolfo Soler, R. Machain, Alejandro Audivert, and Bonifacio and F. Samaniego L. Barreiro. El Pueblo continued publication until 1989.
Comercio (Lima, Peru) 1910-1913
Founded on May 7, 1839, El Comercio (1839- ) is the longest-running daily in Lima. Its founder was the respected journalist Manuel Amunátegui, who ran the paper until 1875. The new director Luis Carranza entered into a partnership in 1876 with Antonio Miró Quesada, and the paper grew in circulation and prestige. The paper passed into sole ownership of the Miró Quesada family in 1898 until government appropriation in 1974. With its dedication to “order, liberty, knowledge,” the paper has been highly influential in Peru’s political and economic environments. Note: This run complements the coverage from 1839-1910 in the previous series.
Mercurio Peruano (Lima, Peru) 1827-1834
El Mercurio Peruano was a conservative-leaning newspaper published in Lima from 1827 to 1834 and from 1839 to 1840. Among its notable employees were Jose Maria de Pando and Felipe Pardo y Aliaga. Pando was a politician concerned about the lawlessness of the South American countries. He sought to establish in Peru as a state that guaranteed the freedoms of its citizens. Felipe Pardo y Aliaga was a Peruvian poet, satirist, playwright, lawyer, and politician. He belonged to the aristocratic elite of Lima and was also interested in the democratization of the country.
Universal (Caracas, Venezuela) 1911-1922
El Universal was founded in April 1909 in Caracas by the Venezuelan poet Andrés Mata and his friend Andrés Vigas, both veteran writers and journalists in addition to having active political lives. Their newspaper had one of the largest circulations in the country. El Universal was a conservative, business-oriented newspaper. In 1914, the founders signed agreements with international news agencies such as United Press International, Reuters, and Associated Press, becoming the first Venezuelan newspaper to do so.